A Contribution to Earth Warming: The Human Factor

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Chapter 1 – Atmospheric Warming

The “Volume” of Air above the  Earth’s surface is a constant volume. Its upper Limit is its height above the Earth as constrained by gravity. Its lower limit is the surface of the Earth above the land and seas.

This volume (V) of atmospheric air is warming up. Air, being a gas, is subjected to the Universal Gas Law, which is – Its pressure (P) multiplied by its volume (V) and divided by its temperature (T) in its appropriate units, is a constant (K). This applies to any specific mass of gas.

Applied to the whole of our atmosphere,

PV/T = K

So if the temperature of the atmosphere rises, then its PV must also rise. Since V is constant, the pressure in our atmosphere will rise whenever its temperature rises.

Within any air mass in the atmosphere, the interplay of its pressure, volume, and temperature, together with the Earth’s spin and its surface profile, causes the air movements. So if our atmospheric temperature rises, the pressure will also rise. Winds will be stronger and faster. This strength and speed of air movements will continue to increase if the atmospheric temperature continues to increase. Wind speeds will keep on increasing as the atmospheric air continues to warm. This will result in more and more violent weather.

Chapter 2 – Greater Precipitation

There is basically two ways where water vapor rises into the atmosphere. One is by heat and the other is by wind.

Heat
The same amount of heat from the Sun will cause more water to be evaporated from the Earth’s surface (river, lakes and seas) if the water temperature is higher. Our air temperature is rising, so is the temperature of our seas. And because of this, there is more water being evaporated every day. More evaporation means more rain.

Wind

Our air temperature is higher. This means our winds are now stronger or faster. Faster winds means more water vapor will be picked up by these winds. Eventually, this means heavier rainfalls or greater precipitation.

More water vapor in the atmosphere also means more snow in the winter. The heat sink in the upper atmosphere has an “infinite” capacity to cool down any water vapor that rises up to that level.

So we will have heavier and heavier rainfalls and heavier snow falls.

Storms

When there is more water vapor in the air, there will more energy released when these vapor becomes rain. The energy released is the heat of condensation and results in lightning. When the heat of condensation is released, it is accompanied by a sudden volume collapse. The volume change is from the vapor stage (gas) to a liquid (water) stage. These will cause thunder when the

collapse space causes air masses to collide through the vacuum created. The world area will become turbulent when there is a continual volume collapse as more rain is formed from its vapor stage.

More water vapor will ultimately means heavier turbulence – and stronger tornadoes and hurricanes.

Chapter 3 – Rising Ocean Level

As ocean and other bodies of water gets warmer, its volume increases. Melting ice will also increase its volume. When ocean level rises, some beachside land will get submerged. The other effect of rising sea level is the volume of atmospheric air will be reduced. The upper air boundary remains unchanged because there is no change in gravity. The lower boundary rises as water levels rise.

In accordance with the Gas Law as applied to the atmosphere, reducing volume has the same effect of rising temperature. It will cause greater pressure changes and making air movements stronger. This results in stronger weather.

Chapter 4 – Forest Fires

Forest fires will burn fiercer when winds are stronger and hotter. Damage caused by forest fires or bush fires will become more destructive and the fires will harder to put out.

Reasons for Climate Change

Chapter 5 – Carbon Balance

The Earth and its elements operate in a closed system. For every human being added on this Earth, its Carbon atoms must come from a plant source or a fossil fuel source or from an animal source. Human beings on Earth gets their diet of Carbon atoms from animal or vegetable food ingested. For every human being added, more farm animals are added. These farm animals derive their Carbon from plants.

So for every human or animal addition to its population, there would be a corresponding reduction in plants – Carbon atom for Carbon atom.

So increasing the human population not only reduces the plant population to build up the human body, it also means increased deforestation for the increase in human habitat space and human carbon usage in furniture and plastics etc.

All the Carbon atoms on Earth is used in its Flora, its Fauna, its fossil fuels stocks, and the Carbon Dioxide in the atmosphere and the Carbon Dioxide in its oceans. (Forget the small amounts like diamonds).

So the total Carbon (Ctotal) = Carbon in Flora (Cflora) + Carbon in Fauna (Cfauna) + Carbon in Fossil Fuels (Cfossil) + Carbon Dioxide (CO2).

An increase in any individual entity (e.g. flora) means a corresponding amount of Carbon from the other entities.

Increasing the human population means there would be less flora or less fossil fuels or less Carbon Dioxide.

Chapter 6 – The Carbon Dioxide Cycle becoming a Carbon Dioxide Spiral

The Carbon Dioxide cycle that we learnt in school is dated. The Carbon Dioxide cycle can only happen if there is plentiful Flora to absorb all the Carbon Dioxide produced by all the Fauna (metabolism) and burning fuels.

From the earlier chapter on Carbon Balance, Every increase in Fauna (includes the Human population), means a decrease in Flora, through the Carbon shift. Every time, the human population grows, there will be less and less Flora. Also there will be land taken up for building cities, towns, residences, roads etc. and this reduces the land available for Flora cultivation.

When life on Earth started, there are plenty of Flora and little Fauna. Today, the growth of Fauna, especially the human Fauna, grows in exponential magnitude.  With Fauna growth and corresponding Flora shrinkage, a time will come when there is insufficient plant material to absorb

all the Carbon Dioxide produced by the Fauna. This is the critical point when the Carbon Dioxide which is not absorbed by plants, remain in the atmosphere. This will continue in an unending cycle and the Carbon Dioxide build up in the atmosphere increases (like in a vicious cycle). Or until there is a reverse Carbon shift from Fauna back to Flora.

Today, we are living in the age of a Carbon Dioxide spiral instead of a Carbon Dioxide cycle.

If we want to get rid of CO2 from our atmosphere, it is better to grow fast growing wooded trees and then cutting them down to bury or use them for wooden structures, not to burn.

Chapter 7 – Heat Generation

Apart from Earth’s energy coming from its core (hot springs and lava), all other energy on Earth comes from the Sun. The Sun’s is used by the Flora to produce glucose and other wooded products storing up the Sun’s energy. Excessive plant material becomes our fossil fuels when they are subjected to heat and pressure when they are forced underground through the Earth’s movements.

Then comes all the Earth’s fauna eating up the plants and metabolizing them to be used as animal energy and re-releases these energy back into the air and water and land as heat. What the plants collect, the animals regurgitates back into Nature as heat.

Human beings metabolizes about 2000 to 3000 Kcals per person per day. Seven billion people releases trillions of Kcal into the environment everyday. Apart from the energy coming from food, humans burns up about 100 million bbls of crude oil and trillions of cubic feet of gas everyday. The energy from fossil fuels are used for heating, cooking, washing, transport, air conditioning, bathing, lighting, high rise living elevators, etc. Urban dwellers use a lot of fossil fuel energy. The consumption of these fossil fuel energy is eventually becomes heat into the environment.

All other form of energy usage, like solar, hydro electricity, nuclear, wind, tidal etc; all these ends up as heat into the environment.

All these heat are low grade heat. They do not disappear into space. Most likely they will end up warming our water and air. Hot water from hot baths etc will end up heating our waters.

Even if there was no CO2 buildup, our Oceans and our atmosphere will continue to warm. Low grade heat cannot be irradiated into space based on Heat Laws. If heat from our atmosphere can be released to space by radiation, then even the tropics will freeze.

Chapter 8 – The Heat Cycle or the Heat Spiral

All the heat from the Sun, from animal metabolism, from the burning of fossil fuels and all the heat generated by nuclear powered plants, will warm up the Earth very quickly if there is no mechanism to remove this heat away from Earth.

The Heat Cycle is Nature’s way to do this.

Whenever water is evaporated, heat is removed. The amount of heat removed is the Heat of Evaporation of water.  (If there is water on your hand and you blow on it, the water will evaporate and your hand will feel cooler).

Everyday, water is evaporated to form clouds and return to Earth as rain or snow or hail. When the water is evaporated by heat or by wind (the wind chill effect), heat is removed and goes with the vapor into the sky and they form clouds. At the cloud level, it is cooled by the upper layers of the atmosphere to form precipitation. In this process, the heat of evaporation  evaporation is released into the upper atmosphere, and into space. Additional heat is released if the water vapor is cooled to become ice or snow. (Heat of solidification).

And so Nature has its Heat Cycle to remove heat from the our Environment into space.

In this Heat cycle, if the heat released into the Environment is greater than the Heat removed by the clouds, then there will be Earth warming. If this situation continues unabated, then there will global warming and the Heat cycle becomes an upward heat spiral. And vice versa.

As the Earth warms, the winds become faster and there will be more evaporation and more heat will be removed. So as our Earth warms, we will have more precipitation. There will be more floods and heavier snowfall. This situation will persist until we run out of fossil fuel, or the population  shrinks to reduce heat usage and heat production.

Chapter 9 – What should be done?

We are now living in a Carbon Dioxide upward spiral. We are also living in an upward Earth warming spiral. And we are continuing to increase our numbers in an exponential function growth.

Going green and recycling efforts  helps to reduce the gravity of spiral but it is not a solution but a postponement of “doomsday”.

If, today, the population of humans were less, we would have a lesser problem.

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